Wildland Fire Apparatus
Wildland Fire Apparatus Description
Kind of a short description of each class of engines which the Forest Service Recognizes as a Minimum Standard for each type.
Type 1 – (Usually a Class A engine in Structural Fire Fighting) Pump 1000 gpm, 400 gal/tank, 1200 ft. 2 1/2″ hose, 400 ft. 1 1/2 ” hose, 200 ft. 1″ hose, 20 feet of ladder, 500 gpm Master Stream, and Minimum 4 people.
Type 2 – 500 gpm, 400 gal/tank, 1000 ft. 2 ½” hose, 500 ft. 1 ½” hose, 300 ft. 1″ hose, 20 feet of ladder, and Min. 3 people.
Type 3 – 120 gpm, 500 gal/tank, 1000 ft. 1 1/2″ hose, 800 ft. 1″ hose, and Min. 3 people. The Type 3 Engines are the most common type of wildland fire engine. While they traditionally have four wheel drive to make driving over rough terrain easier, they can also be produced with standard rear wheel drive. Additionally the cab can either be 2-door or 4-door holding up to five people, but no fewer than three. Almost all Type 3s have 4 doors as a crew size of five is optimum. Type 3’s are required to have a minimum of 500 US gallons of water, and be able to pump 150 US gallons per minute at a pressure of 250 pounds per square inch. They have a typical GVWR of 26,000 pounds.
Type 4 – 70 gpm, 750 gal/tank, 300 ft. 1 ½” hose, 300 ft. 1″ hose, and Min. 3 people.
The Type 4 engine trades a smaller pump and less hose for a 50% larger tank. They are required to carry a minimum of 750 US gallons of water, but only pump 50 US gallons per minute at a pressure of 100 pounds per square inch. The typical GVWR is at least 26,000 pounds.
Type 5 – 50 gpm, 500 gal/tank, 300 ft. 1 ½” hose, 300 ft 1″ hose, and Min. 3 people.
Type 5’s are normally used as an initial attack engine atop a medium duty chassis. The GVWR of the chassis is around 20,000 pounds.
Type 6 – 50 gpm, 200 gal/tank, 300 ft 1 ½” hose, 300 ft 1″ hose, and Min. 2 people.
Type 6 Engines are usually used as initial attack engines. They are built on a pickup truck frame with a medium duty chassis giving a GVWR of 9,000–16,000 pounds. They are required to carry a minimum of 150 US gallons of water, but only pump 50 US gallons per minute at a pressure of 100 pounds per square inch.
Type 7 – 20 gpm, 125 gal/tank, 200 ft 1 ½” hose, 200 ft 1″ hose, and Min. 2 people.
Type 7’s are patrol vehicles with a small pump and tank. As a light duty vehicle, they are in the range of 6,500–10,000 pounds GVWR. The vehicle has a small 50 US gallons water tank and can pump 10 US gallons per minute at a pressure of 100 pounds per square inch. It is a multipurpose unit used for patrol, mop up, or initial attack.
Other equipment is also listed as largest to smallest; Tractors/Dozers Types 1-6, Water Tenders (mobil water supply units), Helicopters, and Air Tankers, are typed 1-4.
Type 2 – A water tender with a minimum pump capacity of 200 GPM and a 2500 gallon or more tank. The Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) greater than 26,000 pounds.
Type 3 – A water tender with a minimum pump capacity of 200 GPM And a 1000 gallon to 2500 gallon tank. The Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) greater than 26,000 pounds.
Type 1 : 3, 000 gallon minimum
Type 2 : 1,800 – 2,999 gallons
Type 3 : 800- 1,799 gallons
Type 4 SEAT (Single Engine Air Tanker) : 0 – 799 gallons
VLAT (Very Large Air Tanker : 10,000 – 20,000 gallons
C-130 Hercules MAFF (Modular Airborne Firefighting System) – A modular unit that can be installed into the C-130.
Helitanker (Aircrane) – 1,100 gallons
A helicopter bucket is a specialized bucket suspended on a cable carried by a helicopter to deliver water for aerial firefighting. Each bucket has a release valve on the bottom which is controlled by the helicopter crew. When the helicopter is in position, the crew releases the water to extinguish or suppress the fire below. Each release of the water is referred to as a drop. The design of the buckets allows the helicopter to hover over a water source – such as a lake, river, pond, or tank – and lower the bucket into the water to refill it. This allows the helicopter crew to operate the bucket in remote locations without the need to return to a permanent operating base, reducing the time between successive drops.
Buckets can be collapsible or rigid and vary in capacity from 72 to 2,600 U.S. Gallons. The size of each bucket is determined by the lifting capacity of the helicopter required to utilize each version. Some buckets can include fire retardant foam or the ability to pump water from the bucket into an internal tank. Smaller collapsible buckets can use water sources as shallow as 1 foot. Worldwide, the term monsoon bucket is widely used and accepted as a generic term. In the United States, this type of bucket is officially referred to as a helibucket. The trademarked Bambi Bucket is also commonly used informally by firefighting crews to describe buckets developed by other manufacturers.
Hand Crews are type 1 & 2: Type 1 – Usually a Fully Mobilized Interagency Recognized Crew, which can be dispatched to a fire and arrive within 12 hours and are required to have other minimum standards not required by Type 2 crews.
1 gallon of water weighs about 8.3 pounds
gpm = gallons of water per minute pump rating
GVWR = Gross Vehicle Weight Rating
Per Captain Hickman/Jim W/Wikipedia